Pantnagar Bioplant Tech - Teak Plantation
Botanical Name -- Ticona grandis
Family -- verbenaceae.
Origen -- Mid asia

Teak (Tectona grandis) is the most prized timber tree of India. It can be grown in almost every part of the country except the dry western zone, although the best teak forests develop in well drained deep alluvial soil. Teak timber fetches very high price because of its grain, colour and strength. Hence teak plantations have been raised for industrial purposes since long. Infact in India regular teak plantations were started as early as in the year 1842. Between the year 1842 - 1862 he had raised more than a million teak trees. The best quality teak growing areas in India are in the central parts of the country.

Distribution

The distribution of teak is largely determined by climate, geology and soil. Teak occurs naturally in portions of India, Burma, Laos, Indonesia (mainly Java) and Thailand. Teak has also been introduced in countries like Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, West Indies, Honduras and Panama.
In India, it is naturally distributed mainly in the peninsular region, but has also been planted in non-traditional areas in northern and north eastern states. It is one of the most important hardwoods of the world and used for furniture, cabinet making, various grades of plywood, paneling, all types of construction, poles, piles, ship building and other purposes.

Agro-Climatic Requirements

Teak prefers moist, warm tropical climate. It can withstand extremes of temperature, but maximum & minimum shade temperatures of 39- 44oC and 13 - 17oC respectively are the most favourable for its growth. It grows well in rainfall zone of 1200-2500 mm. It prefers a deep, fertile, well-drained soil. The sandy soil is considered to be the best soil texture for this tree. It fails to grow in the soil with pH below 6.5.

Planting Units

The number of plants to be planted by each farmer will depend upon extent of area and type of planting e.g. block or bund planting. The optimum spacing for block planting is 2 x 2 m accommodating 2500 plants per ha. On similar basis, the spacing of plants can be kept at 2 m in rows, in bund plantations. The minimum planting area for block plantation should be 0.2 ha or 500 trees per unit.

Nursery Technology

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We supplied tissue culture plants, which generate in bio lab.

Planting Stocks

Selection of planting stock is the most important criterion in raising forestry plantations especially teak

Planting Methods

  1. Teak can be planted at 2m x 2m, 2.5m x 2.5m or 3m x 3m espacement. It can also be raised along with agricultural crops at a spacing of 4m x 4m or 5m x 5m.
  2. Plough lands thoroughly and level it off. Mark the areas for pit digging by alignment and staking.
  3. Dig pits of 45 x 45 x 45 cm sizes. Refill the soil after seasoning and mixing with Farm Yard Manure and insecticides. On poor gravely sites, replace the pit soil by good soil.
  4. Use pre sprouted stumps or polypots for planting.
  5. Best planting season is monsoon; preferably after the first shower.
  6. Firm up the soil after planting and apply irrigation wherever necessary.
  7. Apply 100 g of fertiliser in pit at the time of planting and thereafter in split doses or as per the fertility status of soil.
  8. Carry out weeding operations regularly. Weeding may be carried out @ 3 operations in the first year, 2 operations in second year and one operation in the third year.
  9. Carry out soil working periodically for better growth of plants. One working in the Ist year and two workings in 2nd and 3rd year may be adequate.
  10. Debudding in the initial years may be done to improve the quality of timber.
  11. Undertake prophylactic and control measures for protection of plants from insects/pests and diseases to ensure good health of the crop.

Irrigation

Study has revealed that, irrigation during stress period boosts the growth of the plants. Irrigation should be followed by weeding (3,2,1) and adequate soil working. Two doses of fertiliser (in the month of August & September) @ 50 gm per plant of NPK (15:15:15) may be provided every year upto three years. By increasing the inputs of irrigation and frequent thinning, it is possible to increase the rate of diameter growth. The increase in diameter growth is, however, dependent on increasing the size of the crown i.e. decrease in the number of trees per acre. In other words, one can have either lesser no. of trees of higher girth or larger number of trees of lower girth. It has been observed that teak trees grown under irrigated condition grew faster but the sapwood content of trees increased, the wood became weak and wind damage became quite serious. A phenomenon of water blisters may also develop in teak trees grown under irrigated conditions. Such trees may appear quite healthy from outside but the inner heartwood may develop rot due to storage of excess water that increases the spread of fungi which may further damage the tree.
Many people claim that, teak grown with fertiliser and irrigation give excellent result. Drip irrigation will induce surface roots and epicormic branching. Nitrogen fertilisers will increase the nitrogen content of leaves. Initially larger leaves will increase photosynthesis and faster growth. By about five years the dreaded defoliators and skeletoniser Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis would attack these plantations. These will drastically reduce the photosynthesising leaf surface. These insects have about 14 life cycles in a year. The control through insecticides is not, therefore, possible. Once the trees are established they generally donot respond significantly to irrigation and fertilisers.

Insects, Pests and Diseases

Teak defoliator & skeletoniser (Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis) cause extensive damage to young plantations. Root rot due to Polyporous zonalis is also common in plantation. Pink disease fungus causes cankers and bark flaking. Powdery mildew caused by Olivea tectonae & Uncinula tectonae leads to premature defoliation. It is thus necessary to undertake prophylactic and control measures to ensure good health of the crops. Fresh leaf extracts of Calotropis procera, Datura metal and Azadirachta indica were found to be most effective against teak skeletonizer. This method is of immense importance in the insect, pest control considering its harmless and pollution free implications on the environment further avoiding the operational and residual hazards that involve in the use of organic and inorganic insecticides.

Harvesting, yield & Returns

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The highest growth under plantation condition in India was seen in the Indo-Gangetic belt of Haldwani Division..
It is said that plantation teak grows slowly after an age of 10 years and besides the strength is not as good as in case of naturally grown teak.
It is generally seen that the effect of irrigation and fertiliser application in most tree species is very fast initially and thereafter it slows down. Therefore, the initial response of fast growth which is being seen in the young plantation will not hold on for a long time. Under natural conditions the best growth has been seen on alluvial sites where the soils are very deep and moist, but not wet (Teak is very sensitive to poor drainage).
Normally, an irrigated plantation has been assumed to attain a growth in 12 years which is attained by a rainfed plantation in 15 years.
It takes roughly 12-15 years to produce reasonably good quality timber.
However, due to large market demand for teak, even the poles and small timber fetch good price. First thinning in 7th / 8th year and second thinning in 13th / 14th year may provide good number of poles and small timber to pay back the bank loan. In the final harvest by 12th year each tree can produce quality timber ranging from 7-10 cft. The yield and income are based on a conservative estimate.

Marketing of Timber

Teak is the most important commercial timber tree of India specially for furniture making. The very name of the tree translates into Carpenters Pride and is one of the most sought after timber in Indian market, hence no problem is envisaged in marketing by the farmers. Infact many of the timbers in Indian retail market is sold in the name of teak which are not teak. It is presumed that inspite of large number of plantations raised by the private companies the market for teak timber will remain evergreen. Today most of the teak timber available in the market is only of sapwood, the heart wood is rarely seen.

Cost of Cultivation

The cost of cultivation will depend upon the extent of the area to be planted. The cost of cultivation for a unit area of one ha. at an espacement of 2m x 2m . i.e. 2500 plants/ ha. has been worked out at Rs. 67476/- for 7 years.

Financial Analysis

The financial analysis with the above parameters of the investment cost and yield has been done. The BCR and IRR works out to 1.46 : 1 and 23.57 % respectively.
The entire loan amount with interest can be repaid at the end of 7 years from planting. However, as there is no income generation during the first six years, the interest have to be deferred for first six years.

Growing Teak Investment Programs and Incentives

Currently there are two international teak growing programs available to international citizens. The first program is offered in Panama. A fee of $50K entitles the investor to residency and tax-free income from sales. Tax benefits are extended to other countries including the United States and Canada offering reductions in taxable income to 90 percent. The second program is offered by Costa Rica, An investment of $100k qualifies an international investor for legal permanent residence status in Costa Rica. This gives the investor all the rights of a Costa Rican citizen, except the right to vote in national elections. By Costa Rican law the owner is exempt of all taxes on property. In addition the income produced by the sale of the wood from the plantation is also free of all taxation.